The most enduring Mamluk realm was the military caste in medieval Egypt that rose from the ranks of slave soldiers who were mainly of Kipchak Turk, Circassian and Georgian origin, although in the Burji (post-1389) Mamluk sultanate many Mamluks could also be of Balkan origin (Albanian, Greek, South Slavic).
The Mamluks of Egypt would rise from mere servants to commanders of a vast empire which would eventually encompass Egypt…
After their victory at the Battle of ʿAyn Jālūt later that year, however, the Mamluks were able to roll back the Mongol armies from the Levant.
The Mamluk leader, Quṭuz, who had come to power after the death of Aybak and Shajar al-Durr, ordered the Mongol ambassador put to death, thus insuring war against what seemed an unbeatable adversary.
It is curious that the Mamluks—all of whom were of non-Arab (most were Turks and, later, Circassians), non-Muslim origin and some of whom knew little if any Arabic—founded a regime that established Egypt’s supremacy in Arab culture. Egypt from 1250 to 1517 and Syria (including Palestine) from 1260 to 1516..
In 1260, two years after the demoralizing sack of Baghdad, the Mongol leader sent an ambassador to Egypt to deliver terms of surrender.
It was a period of raw political brutality seldom paralleled in world history. At times individual Mamluks succeeded in establishing dynasties, most notably Sultan Qalāʾūn (reigned 1279–90), whose progeny ruled Egypt, with two short interruptions, until 1382.
Egypt from 1250 to 1517 and Syria (including Palestine) from 1260 to 1516..
During their centuries in power, the Mamluk Sultans oversaw the greatest heights of Egypt… MAMLUKS.
Ayyubid sultans depended on slave (Arabic: mamluk, literally “owned,” or slave) soldiers for military organization, yet mamluks of Qipchaq Turkic origin eventually overthrew the last independent Ayyubid sultan in Egypt, Turan Shah (r. 1249–50), and established their own rule.
But the cumulative effect of the plague (which swept Egypt in 1348 and on many occasions subsequently), Timur’s victory in Syria in 1400, and Egypt’s loss to the Portuguese of control over the Indian trade, along with the sultans’ inability to keep their refractory Mamluk corps under control, gradually sapped the strength of the state.
The Mamluks (lit. The Bahri Mamluks established themselves in Cairo and oversaw one of the greatest periods of prosperity that Egypt experienced after ancient times. MAMLUKS (lit. Mamluks’ war with Ottomans: Rise of a civilisation, fall of another.
Period of Arab and Turkish governors (639–868), The Mamluk and Ottoman periods (1250–1800), From the French to the British occupation (1798–1882), The French occupation and its consequences (1798–1805), Muḥammad ʿAlī and his successors (1805–82), The period of British domination (1882–1952), The British occupation and the Protectorate (1882–1922). With the fall of Baghdad and the conquest of Syria, the center of Muslim power shifted westward to the Mamluks in Egypt.
The Mamluks finally lost control of Egypt in 1517 at the hands of Ottoman Sultan Selim I.
Under the Mamluk sultans in Egypt and Syria, local Jews often suffered at the hands of government officials and Muslim zealots, although at times the sultan and his representatives were also a restraining influence on fanatical mobs or leaders. But Mamluks had first appeared in the Abbasid caliphate in the ninth century and even after their overthrow by the Ottomans they continued to form an important part of Egyptian Islamic society and existed as an influential group until the 19th century. Often the Mamluks chose to allow a sultan’s son to succeed his father only for as long as it took another Mamluk to build up enough support to seize the throne for himself. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1249, for example, the French king Louis IX launched a Crusade against the Muslim world.
slaves) were a military class that ruled .
The Mamluks also sought to extend their power into the Arabian Peninsula and into Anatolia and Little Armenia; to protect Egypt’s rear, they strove to establish their presence in Nubia. He ruled until 1277. Looking back at this point in Islamic history the Mamluks contribution to Islam was incredibly important.
The Mamluk Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة المماليك, romanized: Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant and Hejaz that established itself as a caliphate. Even after Egypt became part of the Ottoman Empire, the Mamluks remained in power to govern Egypt until the 19th century when Muhammed Ali rose up to establish a hereditary dynasty. During the Mamluk period Egypt became the unrivaled political, economic, and cultural centre of the eastern Arabic-speaking zone of the Muslim world.
He landed at Damietta, Egypt, and essentially blundered up and down the Nile for several months, until he decided to besiege the town of Mansoura.
Qutuz (r. 1259-1260), the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, decided to fight the Mongols. Grand Mamluk mausoleums like the Qala’un Complex on Mu’izz Ad-Din Street in Islamic Cairo are still among the most impressive structures in Cairo.
It's not a surprise that the Mamluks were key players in several important historical events.
Western historians call the former the "Baḥrī" period and the latter the "Burjī" due to the political dominance of the regimes … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. slaves) were a military class that ruled .
The Mamluks under the Ottomans (1517–1798) With the Ottoman victories over the Mamluks in 1516–17, Egypt and Syria reverted to the status of provinces within an empire. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids!
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