Yes We need some reference with which to compare the current indicator value. The composite indicator is the sum of the standardized six log-transformed citation indicators (NC, H, Hm, NS, NSF, NSFL). However, this metric depends a lot on the specific sub-field and numbers of co-authors, and values can be markedly affected by outliers (one or a few extremely cited papers).

SIGMA Assessment Systems provides talent assessments, succession planning, executive coaching, and consulting services to help organizations hire and develop strong performers. Of course, it is not possible to ever reach certainty that scientists ranked on the top based on the composite score are more influential than others with modestly lower ranking. These two factors are roughly balanced with each other in the composite indicator. We also recorded the number of papers by each scientist published up to and including 2013 (NP), and the respective number of citations per paper in 2013 (CPP). Yes Instead of using only one citation indicator, systematically examining multiple indicators offers a more complete, granular picture.

No citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to select all the best scientists. Leaders who are high on self-discipline are not easily distracted. We separately calculated the correlations of NC with all other indicators in each scientific discipline that included at least 1,000 scientists. Comparison against funding databases has also shown that Scopus identifiers have very high precision for matching to specific single authors [18]; therefore, we expect that these 84,116 names reflect single authors with high accuracy.

No, Is the Subject Area "Medicine and health sciences" applicable to this article? Looking for more resources to improve your leadership skills? Acknowledging these caveats, we argue that instead of using isolated single indicators, insights can be improved if indicators are generated systematically for the entire scientific community, and multiple such indicators are examined in parallel and in composite scores that integrate volume of citations, co-authorship, and author order. We randomly selected 20 scientists who were among the 1,000 top-ranked for total citations, but did not have any citations to a paper for which they were single, first, or last author.
6Mantzios, M. & Giannou, K. (2014). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Several evaluations [42–44] have shown that the distributions of asymptotic number of citations to papers published in a single journal, by researchers in a single academic department, or by the same researcher all follow a discrete lognormal transformation. Furthermore, one could assess whether these correlation patterns differ across different scientific fields.

Physics, which has the strongest tradition of extremely multi-authored papers, stands out from the other disciplines in that NC was negatively correlated with all four author-adjusted or author-order indicators (NS, NSF, NSFL, and Hm index).

Download your PDF copy of our Leadership Series Handout: Leadership Series – Self-Discipline.

Examining all of these indicators may give more granular information about the impact of a scientist than a single indicator alone.

ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Self-discipline as a Key Indicator to Improve Learning Outcomes in e-learning Environment. We limited the analysis to citations received by scientists from papers published in 2013. Try to keep track of how your tasks make you feel.

While behavioral indicators are used to help in evaluate performance, proficiency levels describe the levels of a competency required to perform a specific job successfully; these levels relate to the work required for a specific job.

Meta-Research Article For example, “penalizing” scientists with >30% self-citation rate may affect a substantial number of scientists. However, they are also known to have major caveats that can lead to misleading conclusions [1]. The composite indicator is the sum of the standardized six log-transformed citation indicators (NC, H, Hm, NS, NSF, NSFL).


PLOS Biology 14(8): e1002548. Research has shown that leaders with a strong sense of self-control and persistence are more likely to be diligent1 and engaged in their work2.

Citation: Ioannidis JP, Klavans R, Boyack KW (2016) Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines. Nevertheless, the selected top-ranked scientists represent a cohort of highly influential scientists who can be used for other empirical assessments [21]. PLOS Biology provides an Open Access platform to showcase your best research and commentary across all areas of biological science. S1 Table shows the proportion of the scientists categorized in each of the 12 key fields among the top- 1,000, top 3,000, top 10,000, top 20,000, and top 30,000 based on the composite score and among all 84,116 scientists analyzed.

A Key Performance Indicator or KPI is a term used in industry to describe a way in which we might measure performance. Am I effectively delegating work and decision-making where possible?

We used Hm, which is an index that has been widely cited since presented in 2008 (over 230 citations for the journal article and the respective arXiv article), and because some others (e.g., the hI index [32]) have the undesirable paradox that they can even decrease over time (e.g., if multi-authored papers in a scientist’s curriculum vitae become more cited than her papers with few authors).

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